Integrated  Ruminant Nutrition
Publications

Nutritional characterization of Mucuna pruiriens: 2. In vitro ruminal fluid fermentability of Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna l-dopa and soybean meal incubated with or without l-dopa

 
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S.K. Chikagwa-Malungaa, A.T. Adesogana, , M.B. Salawub, N.J. Szaboc, R.C. Littelld, S.C. Kima, 1 and S.C. Phatake

Animal Feed Science and Technology  Volume 148, Issue 1, 2009, Pages 51-67

aDepartment of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

bIntegrated Ruminant Nutrition, Coventry CV6 7LQ, United Kingdom

cAnalytical Toxicology Core Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

dDepartment of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

eDepartment of Horticulture, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA, USA

aDepartment of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

bIntegrated Ruminant Nutrition, Coventry CV6 7LQ, United Kingdom

cAnalytical Toxicology Core Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

dDepartment of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

eDepartment of Horticulture, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA, USA

 

Three in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the rumen fermentability of Mucuna (M) pruriens (24 g 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-dopa)/kg dry matter (DM) and soybean meal treated with (SBD) or without (SB) 138 g l-dopa/kg DM). Additional objectives were to determine if l-dopa inhibits rumen fermentation, and if ruminal microbes can adapt to l-dopa or M. In Experiment 1, ground (1 mm) substrates were incubated in triplicate at 38 °C in 9 ml nutrient media and 1 ml rumen fluid in a series of six, 48 h, consecutive batch cultures. The first culture was inoculated with rumen fluid from two donor cows. Subsequent cultures were inoculated with fluid (1 ml) from the previous culture. The DM digestibility (DMD, 616 g/kg vs. 540 g/kg; P<0.01) and gas production (51.7 ml/g vs. 44.2 ml/g DM; P<0.05) were higher from fermentation of M versus SB but similar for SB and SBD (540 g/kg vs. 554 g/kg and 44.2 ml/g DM vs. 43.5 ml/g DM, respectively). The slopes of the relationships between DMD (g/kg) or gas production (ml/g DM) and fermentation period were not reduced by fermenting M (-0.014 DMD slope; 2.28 gas production slope) or SBD (-0.014 DMD slope; 0.459 gas production slope), instead of SB (-0.002 DMD slope; 1.039 gas production slope), indicating microbial adaptation to M and SBD. Total volatile fatty acid concentration (VFA; 53.7, 54.9 and 54.9 mmol/l) and molar proportions of VFA were similar among substrates. Gas production kinetics of M versus SB (Experiment 2), and SB versus SBD (Experiment 3) were also measured after substrates were incubated in triplicate in buffered rumen fluid for 24 h using a non-linear exponential model to fit the data. Residual l-dopa was measured after separate fermentation of substrates in triplicate for 0, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h. Fermentation of M versus SB produced more (P<0.05) gas (250 ml/g vs. 100 ml/g DM) and total VFA (203 mmol/l vs. 180 mmol/l) and a lower (P<0.05) acetate:propionate ratio (1.35 vs. 1.87; P<0.05). Adding l-dopa to SB increased (P<0.01) gas production (92 ml/g DM vs. 200 ml/g DM), and total VFA concentration (132 mmol/l vs. 188 mmol/l), but reduced (P<0.05) gas production rate (0.08 ml/h vs. 0.05 ml/h). The concentration of l-dopa in fermented M and SBD decreased by 53 and 47%, respectively during fermentation. In conclusion, M was more fermented than SB and degradation of l-dopa during ruminal fermentation and microbial adaptation to l-dopa were confirmed. Adding l-dopa to SB did not impair ruminal fermentation.

 

Keywords: Mucuna; l-Dopa; Soybean meal; Digestibility; Gas production



The use of tannins as silage additives: effects on silage composition and mobile bag disappearance of dry matter and protein

M.B. Salawu a,b,c,*, T. Acamovica,1, C.S. Stewartc, T. Hvelplundd, M.R. Weisbjergd

aScotland Agricultural College, Aberdeen, AB24 5UD, Scotland, UK

bUniversity of Aberdeen, 581 King Street, Aberdeen AB24 5UD, Scotland, UK.

cRowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, Scotland, UK

dDanish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Research Centre Foulum, P.O. Box 50,

DK-8830, Tjele, Denmark

 

Animal Feed Science and Technology 82 (1999) 243±259

 

 

The effects on silage composition of ensiling perennial ryegrass (PRG) with three commercial tannins (mimosa, myrabolam and quebracho tannins) were assessed (Experiment 1). The effects on silage composition and mobile bag disappearance of DM, nitrogen and true protein of the addition of these tannins or a combination of tannin plus formic acid, formaldehyde alone, formic acid alone, or a combination of formaldehyde and formic acid (Experiment 2) were also studied. In Experiment 1, the PRG was a third cut with a mean oven-dry DM content of 200 g/kg. All silages were prepared on a small laboratory scale (500 g), with the additives added in 20 ml   liquots/kg herbage fresh weight. The tannins were added at the rate of 5 or 50 g/kg herbage DM and in Experiment 1, samples were examined after 7 or 32 days of ensiling. In Experiment 2, a 1st cut PRG with a mean oven-dry DM content of 188 g/kg was used and the samples were taken on days 7, 14 and 49. In Experiment 1, treatment with tannins reduced the soluble nitrogen (SN) and ammonia content of the silages. In Experiment 2, the tannins used also reduced silage SN during ensiling, and were able to reduce degradation of silage nitrogen and true proteins in the rumen. Of the tannins used, quebracho tannin was also able to reduce SN and rumen degradation better than mimosa tannin. However, the tannins were not as good as formaldehyde at protecting silage proteins both during ensiling and in the rumen, neither were they better than formic acid in enhancing silage quality. For both the tannins and formaldehyde, formic acid addition further reduced the SN content as a result  of the combined effect of rapid acidification and protein binding. 

 

Keywords: Mimosa tannins; Mobile bags; Myrabolam tannins; Proteolysis; Quebracho tannins; Silage

* Corresponding author. Present address:

Welsh Institute of Rural Studies, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL, Wales, UK. Tel.: .44-1970-621678; fax: .44-1970-611264  E-mail address: mbs@aber.ac.uk (M.B. Salawu)

1 Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, SAC Auchincruive, Ayr, KA6 5HW, Scotland. UK.

 

 

Calliandra calothyrsus leaf extracts' effects on microbial growth and enzyme activities.
Salawu, M. B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C. S.
SAC, 581 King Street, Aberdeen AB24 5UD, UK.
Editors: Garland, T., Barr, A. C.
Book Title: Toxic plants and other natural toxicants

This chapter describes in vitro studies of the inhibitory effects of C. calothyrsus leaves (coppice, 4 months and 1.5 years old, collected from the central highlands of Kenya) and leaf extracts on selected rumen microbes (Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Selenomonas ruminantium, Prevotella bryantii, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Neocallimastix frontalis). Tabulated data on the proanthocyanidin content of C. calothyrsus; in vitro dry matter loss of C. calothyrsus leaf samples incubated with mixed rumen contents in a consecutive batch culture (CBC); carboxymethyl cellulase [cellulase] and xylanase [xylan endo-1,3-ß-xylosidase] activities of cell free preparation of the rumen fungus (N. frontalis) in the presence of extracts of C. calothyrsus leaves; and the effect of aqueous methanol extracts of C. calothyrsus leaf extracts on the growth of anaerobic gut bacteria. Extracts of the 4 months old leaves generally had more markedly inhibitory effects than the other extracts. Because young plants are particularly vulnerable to attack by insect pests and hervibores, these plants presumably synthesize biologically active compounds to deter herbivory. This may explain why their leaves had particularly low dry matter losses in CBC, and why their extracts inhibit rumen enzymes and rumen bacterial growth.


Publisher: CAB International

Fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability and ruminal degradation of ensiled pea/wheat bi-crop forages treated with two microbial inoculants, formic acid or quebracho tannins

 

Mustapha B Salawu *, Elizabeth H Warren, Adegbola T Adesogan

Institute of Rural Studies, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3AL, UK

*Correspondence to Mustapha B Salawu, Commonwork Organic Farms Limited, 2 Orchard Cottages, Bore Place, Chiddingstone,

Edenbridge, Kent TN8 7AR, UK

Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2001 81(13): 1263 – 1268

This study evaluated the effects of two commonly used microbial inoculants (Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP)), formic acid (FA) and quebracho tannins (QT) on the fermentation quality, aerobic stability and in situ rumen degradation of pea/wheat bi-crop forages. Precision-chopped spring pea (Pisum sativum, var Magnus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum, var Axona) bi-crops (3:1 pea/wheat ratio) harvested at a combined dry matter (DM) content of 301 g kg-1 were used for the study. The bi-crops were conserved without (Control) or with inoculants based on lactic acid bacteria (LB (105 CFU g-1 fresh weight (FW)) or LP (106 CFU g-1 FW)), QT (16 g kg-1 FW) or FA (2.5 g kg-1 FW) in laboratory silos of 1.5 kg capacity, with each treatment being replicated six times. The pH, chemical composition, aerobic stability and in situ rumen degradation of DM, nitrogen (N) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) after 112 days of ensilage were measured. The average pH at silo opening was 4.0, suggesting that the silages were well fermented. There were no significant effects of additive treatment on water-soluble carbohydrate, total N, soluble N, ammonia N and NDF. Lactic acid and acetic acid were the main fermentation products. High concentrations of acetic acid were found in all the treatments, indicating a heterofermentative pathway. Although FA treatment gave the most aerobically stable silage, the Control and QT-treated silages did not heat up by more than 1 °C until after 6 days of exposure to air. There were no effects of additives on DM degradation characteristics. However, the inoculants increased the rate of N and NDF degradation in the rumen, and both FA and QT reduced the effective and potential degradation of N.

© 2001 Society of Chemical Industry

Forage intake, meal patterns, and milk production of lactating dairy cows fed grass silage or pea-wheat bi-crop silages.

Salawu MB, Adesogan AT, and Dewhurst RJ
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Journal of Dairy Science 2002 85:3035-3044 

This study investigated the feed intake, milk production, and plasma nutrient status in dairy cows fed inter-cropped pea-wheat (bi-crop) silages comprised of contrasting ratios of pea to wheat. Spring peas (cv. Magnus) and wheat (cv. Axona) sown at either high (75:25) or low (25:75) pea inclusion rates were harvested after 13 (Cut 1) or 15 (Cut 2) wk. Eighteen Holstein-Friesian cows between wk 9 and 10 of lactation were used in a cyclical changeover design with three 28-d periods. Cows were fed the bi-crop silages and 6 kg of concentrates or second-cut grass silage supplemented with 6 (GS6) or 9 (GS9) kg/d of concentrates. Forage intakes were higher when bi-crops were fed (10.3 to 11.4 kg dry matter [DM]/d) than when grass silage was fed (8.6 kg DM/d). Total DM intake was similar among cows fed the bi-crop silages and GS9 diets, but intakes for GS6 were at least 1.7 kg DM/d lower. Increasing the pea inclusion rate increased the crude protein (CP) content of the ration, but it did not enhance forage quality or animal performance. The rate of intake of the different forages was similar, so that the higher intakes of bi-crop silages were associated with more time spent at the feedbunk and an increased number of meals. Diet digestibility ranged from 531 to 650 g/kg, and the highest value was given by the Cut 1 bi-crop silage diet. Milk yield tended to be similar for cows fed the Cut 2 bi-crop and GS9 diets, and these values were at least 1.7 kg higher than those for cows fed on other treatments. Generally, the bi-crop diets resulted in higher milk fat contents and lower polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. Milk protein content was highest for cows fed the GS9 diet. Blood metabolite content was unaffected by treatment except for blood urea nitrogen content, which was higher in cows fed the bi-crop silages, reflecting reduced N-use efficiency with these diets. The study showed that pea-wheat bi-crop silages can be used to replace moderate-quality grass silage in dairy cow rations, but their role as alternatives to high-quality forages requires additional investigation.

 Publisher: American Dairy Science Association

Reducing concentrate supplementation in dairy cow diets while maintaining milk production with pea-wheat intercrops.

Adesogan AT, Salawu MB, Williams SP, Fisher WJ, and Dewhurst RJ
IRS, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3AL, UK.

Journal of Dairy Science 2004 87(10):3098-3406+ View Abstract

In the first of 2 experiments, 40 dairy cows were used to evaluate the milk production potential and concentrate-sparing effect of feeding dairy cows a basal diet of pea-wheat intercrop silages instead of perennial rye-grass silage (GS). Dairy cows were offered GS or 2 intercrop silages prepared from wheat and either Magnus peas (MW, a tall-straw variety) or Setchey peas (SW, a short-straw variety) ad libitum. The respective intercrops were supplemented with 4 kg/d of a dairy concentrate (CP = 240 g/kg dry matter; MW4 and SW4), and the GS were supplemented with 4 (GS4) or 8 (GS8) kg/d of the same concentrate. The second experiment measured the forage DM intake, digestibility, rumen function, and microbial protein synthesis from the forages by offering them alone to 3, non lactating cows (3 x 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods). Forage dry matter intake was greater in cows fed the intercrop silages than those fed GS. Milk production was greater in cows fed SW4 than those fed GS4 or MW4, but similar to cows fed GS8. Dietary treatment did not affect milk fat, protein, or lactose concentrations. The intercrops had greater N retention, and were more digestible than the GS, and these factors probably contributed to the greater forage DM intakes and greater milk production from the intercrop silages compared with the GS. Rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations were similar across forages, but urinary purine derivative excretion was greater in the cows fed the intercrop silages than the GS, suggesting that rumen microbial protein synthesis was enhanced by feeding the intercrops. In conclusion, similar milk yield and milk composition can be obtained by feeding SW and 4 kg of concentrates as that obtained with GS and 8 kg of concentrates. Feeding intercrop silages instead of GS with the same amount of concentrates increased forage intakes, N retention, and microbial protein synthesis.

Publisher: American Dairy Science Association

The influence of treatment with dual purpose bacterial inoculants or soluble carbohydrates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of Bermuda grass.

Adesogan AT, Krueger N, Salawu MB, Dean DB, and Staples CR
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Journal of Dairy Science 2004 87(10):3407-3416

This study determined the effectiveness of an inoculant (BB),molasses, or a mixture of either BB and molasses (BBM) or BB and fibrolytic enzymes (BBE) for improving the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermuda grass. A 6-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermuda grass was conserved in quadruplicate mini silos alone or after treatment application. The inoculant contained a mixture of P. pentosaceus 12455, 1 x10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, L. buchneri 40788, 4 x10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, and beta-glucanase, alpha-amylase, and xylanase; BBE contained similar bacteria and enzymes as BB, but greater enzyme activities. Chemical composition was quantified after 2, 4, 7, 30, and 60 d of ensiling. Microbial composition and aerobic stability were measured after 60 d of ensiling, at which point the pH of additive-treated silages was consistently lower and DM recovery was higher than in untreated silages. The BB, BBM, and molasses-treated silages had less ammonia N than untreated silages, and BB, BBM, and BBE-treated silages had less residual water-soluble carbohydrates than untreated silages. All silages had high acetic acid (47.5 g/kg DM) and low lactic acid (1.7 g/kg DM) concentrations. However, untreated and BBE-treated silages had more butyric acid and ammonia N, suggesting that a clostridial fermentation had occurred. These butyric forages were more aerobically stable (27 d) but less desirable for feeding than those ensiled with BB or molasses, which were stable for 6.9 d. In conclusion, BB and molasses treatments improved the digestibility and fermentation of bermuda grass and produced higher quality silages that were stable for 6.9 d. Mixing BB with molasses or the inoculant tested was not more beneficial than BB or molasses alone.

Publisher: American Dairy Science Association

 

 

Peered reviewed publications

1.       Chikagwa-Malunga S.K., Adesogan, A.T. Salawu, M.B., Szabo, N.J., Littell, R.C., Kim, S.C. and Phatak, S.C. 2009. Nutritional characterization of Mucuna pruiriens: 2. In vitro ruminal fluid fermentability of Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna l-dopa and soybean meal incubated with or without l-dopa Animal Feed Science and Technology  Volume 148, Issue 1, 2009, Pages 51-67

2.       Adesogan A.T., Krueger N, Salawu M.B., Dean D.B., Staples C.R. 2004. The influence of treatment with dual purpose bacterial inoculants or soluble carbohydrates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of Bermuda grass. Journal of Dairy Science. 87:3407-16.

3.       Adesogan A.T., Salawu M.B., Williams S.P., Fisher W.J., Dewhurst R.J. 2004 Reducing concentrate supplementation in dairy cow diets while maintaining milk production with pea-wheat intercrops. Journal of Dairy Science. 87(10):3398-406.

4.       Adesogan, T.A., Salawu, M.B,  Ross, A.B, Davies, D.R. and Brooks, A.E. 2003 Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus fermentum, or Leuconostoc mesenteroides inoculants or a chemical additive on the fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability and nutritive value of crimped grain Journal of Dairy Science  86(5):1789-96.

5.       Salawu, M.B., Adesogan, T.A. and Dewhurst, R.J. 2002. Intake characteristics, meal patterns and milk production from lactating dairy cows fed on pea-wheat bi-crops. Journal of Dairy Science 85:3035-3044.

6.       Salawu M. B. Adesogan, T.A., Fraser, M.D., Fychan, R. and Jones, R. 2002. Assessment of the nutritive value of whole crop peas and pea/wheat bi-crop forages harvested at three different maturity stages for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology 96:43-53

7.       Adesogan, T.A. and Salawu, M.B. 2002. The effect of different additives on the fermentation quality, aerobic stability and in vitro digestibility of pea/wheat bi-crops containing contrasting pea to wheat ratios. Grass and Forage Science 57:23-32

8.       Adesogan, T.A., Salawu, M.B. and Deaville, E.R. 2002. The effect of maturity at harvest and proportion of peas to wheat on chemical composition, voluntary feed intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen retention of pea/wheat bi-crop forages in sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology 96:161-173.

9.       Salawu M. B., Warren E.H. and Adesogan, T.A. 2001. Fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability and ruminal degradation of ensiled pea/wheat bi-crop forages treated with two microbial inoculants, formic acid or quebracho tannins. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture. 81:1263-1268

10.    Salawu, M.B., Adesogan, T.A., Weston, N., Fraser, M., Jones, R., Williams, S.P. 2001. Dry matter yield and nutritive value of pea/wheat bi-crops differing in maturity at harvest, pea to wheat ratio and pea variety. Animal Feed Science and Technology 94:77-87

11.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S. and Hovell, F.D. DeB.  1999. Effects of feeding quebracho tannin diets, with or without a dietary modifier, on rumen function in sheep. Animal Science.  69:265-274.

12.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S., Hvelplund, T and Weisbjerg, M.R. 1999. The disappearance of dry matter, nitrogen, amino acids and proanthocyanidins in the gastro intestinal tract from different fractions of Calliandra leaves. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 79:289-300.

13.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S., Hvelplund, T and Weisbjerg, M.R. 1999. The use of tannins as silage additives: effects on silage composition and digestibility of dry matter and protein in dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology 82:243-259.

14.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S. and Roothhaert, R.L. 1999. Composition and degradability of different fractions of Calliandra leaves, pods and seeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 77:181-199.

15.   Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T. and Stewart, C.S. 1998. Calliandra calothyrsus leaf extracts’ effects on microbial growth and enzyme activities. In Toxic plants and other natural toxicants.  T. Garland and A.E. Barr (editors). CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp. 509-513.

16.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S. and Maasdorp. B. 1997. Assessment of the nutritive value of Calliandra calothyrsus: Its chemical composition and influence of tannins, pipecolic acid and polyethylene glycol on in vitro organic matter digestibility. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 69:207-217.

17.    Salawu, M.B, Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S. and Hovell, F.D. DeB.  1997. Quebracho tannins with or without Browse Plus (a commercial preparation of polyethylene glycol) in sheep diets: Effect on digestibility of nutrients in vivo, and degradation of grass hay in sacco and in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 69:67-78.

18.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S., Hovell, F.D. DeB. and McKay, I.  1997. Assessment of the nutritive value of Calliandra calothyrsus: In sacco degradability and in vitro gas production in the presence of quebracho tannins with or without Browse Plus. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 69:219-232.

19.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S. and Hovell, F.D. DeB. 1996. The utilisation of a commercial polyethylene glycol preparation to ameliorate the influence of tannins on rumen environment. Animal Science, 62(3): 656 Abstract.

20.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Scaife, J.R. and Michie, M. 1995. Effects of mixed enzyme treatment on ileal dry matter and nitrogen digestibility in laying hen diets containing four different varieties of faba beans. British Poultry Science, 36:867-868.

21.    Salawu, M.B., Adedeji, S.K.  and Hassan, W.A. 1994. Performance of broilers and rabbits given diets containing full fat neem (Azadirachta indica) seed meal. Animal Production, 58:285-289.

 
Publications in farmers press and conference proceedings

22.    Salawu, M.B. 2010. Quality silage is vital for profit. Farmers Guide Editorial March 2010, Page 93.

23.    Salawu, M.B. 2009. To just what extent can rapeseed meal replace soya? Dairy Vet. Sept 2009. Page 15.

24.    Salawu, M.B. 2005. The Crimping system and the feeding of crimped grains to ruminants. Proceedings of the Animal Production Society of Kenya; Annual Scientific Symposium on Livestock production and Marketing Strategies for Sustainable Livelihood. ARC, Egerton University, Kenya. 9-11, March 2005.

25.    Salawu, M.B. Farmers confused over maize feed type and quality. British Dairy Farmers. May 2005, page 18.

26.    Adesogan, A.T., Chikagwa-Malunga, S. K., Salawu M.B. and Kim S. C. 2004. The in vitro digestibility, gas production and fermentation characteristics of Mucuna pruiriens, and soybean meal treated with or without L-Dopa. Proceedings of the American Society of Animal Science Conference.

27.    Salawu, M.B. Crimping grain. Journal of Soil Association. Summer 2004, pages 16-17.

28.    Salawu, M.B. Crimped Feed for organic livestock. Scottish Organic Producers Association Magazine. Summer 2004, page 11.

29.    Salawu, M.B. 2004. Many crops can be crimped. Farmers weekly, June 18-24 Edition.

30.    Adesogan, T.A., Salawu, M.B., and Dewhurst, R.J. 2002.  Enhancing milk production by feeding cereal legume intercrops. Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Crop-livestock Production for Improved Livelihoods and Natural Resource Management in West Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria

31.    Salawu, M.B., Adesogan, T.A. and Bax,.J 2002. Effect of inoculants or formic acid treatment on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of pea/wheat bi-crops and pea or wheat. Proceedings of the XIIIth International Silage Conference, Scotland.

32.    Adesogan, T.A., Salawu, M.B, Sindou, J and Hurdidge, L. 2002. Effect of inoculants or a chemical additive on the fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability and nutritive value of crimped grain. Proceedings of the XIIIth International Silage Conference, Scotland.

33.    Salawu, M.B., Adesogan, T.A. and Dewhurst, R.J. 2001. The effect of replacing grass silage with pea-wheat bi-crops in dairy cow diets on feed intake, concentrate utilization and milk production. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science.

34.    de Sousa Lamy, E. C. C., Williams,  S. P., Salawu, M.B. and  Hammond,  C. J. 2001 The utilization of a commercial rapeseed meal product (RaPass) as a protein supplement for lactating dairy cows. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science.

35.    Salawu, M.B., Adesogan, T.A. and Dewhurst, R.J. 2001. The effect of forage type and host animal diet on the in situ rumen degradation of grass silage and pea/wheat bi-crops containing different pea varieties. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science.

36.    Salawu, M.B., Adesogan, T.A. and Dewhurst, R.J. 2000 Milk production from dairy cows offered pea/wheat bi-crops containing different ratios of peas to wheat and harvested at two maturity stages. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science.

37.    Adesogan, T.A., Salawu, M.B. and Deaville, E.R. 2000 The effect of proportion of peas to wheat and harvest date on the voluntary feed intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen retention of pea/wheat bi-crop silages by sheep. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science.

38.    Adesogan, T.A., Salawu, M.B. and Dewhurst, R.J. 2000. Recent advances in evaluating the potential of pea/wheat bi-crops as livestock feeds. Proceedings of the MGA Whole Crop Conference, Staffordshire, UK.

39.    Adesogan, T.A., Salawu, M.B. and Dewhurst, R.J. 2000. Concentrate requirement for dairy cows halved with pea/wheat bi-crops. Proceedings of the British Grassland Society Conference, Aberdeen, Scotland.

40.    Adesogan, T.A. and Salawu, M.B. 1999. Pea/wheat bi-crops as ruminants feed. In: Nutritional Ecology of Herbivores (an Integration). Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivore, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

41.    Salawu, M.B. and Acamovic, T. 1999. The gastro intestinal tract disappearance of amino acids in silages treated with tannins, formic acid or formaldehyde. T. Pauly (Editor). Proceedings of the XIIth International Silage Conference, Uppsala, Sweden.

42.    Salawu, M.B., Warren, H.E. and Adesogan, T.A. 1999. The effect of applying additives on the in situ rumen degradation of nitrogen and neutral detergent fibre in pea/wheat bi-crop silages T. Pauly (Editor). Proceedings of the XIIth International Silage Conference, Uppsala, Sweden.

43.    Salawu, M.B. and Adesogan, T.A. 1999. Aerobic stability of pea/wheat bi-crop silages treated with different additives. T. Pauly (Editor). Proceedings of the XIIth International Silage Conference, Uppsala, Sweden.

44.    Adesogan, T.A., Salawu, M.B. and Dewhurst, R.J. 1999. The production conservation and nutritive value of pea/wheat bi-crops for dairy cows. Proceedings of the Dairy Research Consultancy Conference, CEDAR, Reading, UK.

45.    Adesogan, T.A., Salawu, M.B., Fraser, M.D., Evans, S.T., Fychan, R. and Jones, R. 1999. Intake, digestibility in vivo and nitrogen balance in sheep of pea/wheat bi-crop silages harvested at three stages of maturity. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science.

46.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Hvelplund, T and Weisbjerg, M.R. 1998. Effects of tannins, formaldehyde and formic acid on total tract disappearance of DM, nitrogen and amino acids in grass silage. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science.

47.    Adesogan, T.A., Salawu, M.B., Fraser, M., Jones, R. 1998. Pea-wheat bi-crops as ruminant feeds. 2. The feed intake and in vivo digestibility in sheep of bi-crops harvested at three stages of maturity. In: Keeping the Balance.  Proceedings of the winter meeting of the British Grassland Society, Peebles, Scotland.

48.    Salawu, M.B., Adesogan, T.A., Weston, N., Fraser, M., Jones, R., Williams, S.P. 1998. Pea-wheat bi-crops as ruminant feeds. 1.  The effect of maturity at harvest on yield, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility in the pre-conserved forage. In: Keeping the Balance.  Proceedings of the winter meeting of the British Grassland Society, Peebles, Scotland.

49.    Salawu, M.B. and Acamovic, T. 1997. A comparison of the effect of tannins or formaldehyde or a mixture of tannins/formic acid or formaldehyde/ formic acid on silage composition. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science.

50.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S. and Roothhaert, R.L. 1997. Chemical composition and in vitro degradability of different parts of Calliandra calothyrsus from Kenya. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science.

51.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S. and Hovell, F.D. DeB. 1997. Proanthocyanidin content of Calliandra leaves and the effect of polyethylene glycol and pH on complexes formed between Calliandra tannins and Bovine serum albumin. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science.

52.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T. and Stewart, C.S. 1997. The inhibition of the growth of rumen bacteria and the enzyme activities of the rumen fungi (Neocallimastix frontalis strain RE1) by extracts of Calliandra leaves. Proceedings 5th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants, Texas, USA.

53.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S. and McKay, I. 1995.  Effects of the presence of quebracho tannins and browse plus in rumen liquor on in vitro degradation pattern of Calliandra leaves and stem  and the volatile fatty acid profile of the liquor after incubation. Paper Presented at the EU sponsored International Conference on Evaluation of Forages in the Tropics.  Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zimbabwe, Harare. 28 August – 1 September 1995.

54.    Salawu, M.B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S. and Hovell, F.D. DeB. 1995. Effects of quebracho tannins with or without two levels of browse plus on apparent digestibility of nutrients and degradation of grass hay by sheep in vivo. Paper Presented at the EU sponsored International Conference on Evaluation of Forages in the Tropics.  Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zimbabwe, Harare. 28 August – 1 September 1995.

 

OTHERS

a)       Salawu M. B. 1997. The nutritive value of the legume browse Calliandra calothyrsus and the role of tannins in ruminant feed (PhD Thesis). July 1997

b)       Salawu M. B. 1992. Effects of mixed enzyme treatment of faba beans (Vicia faba L) on the performance, ileal dry matter and nitrogen digestibility of laying hens (MSc Thesis). September 1992.

c)       Salawu M. B. 1989. The use of full fat neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) seed meal in broiler rations (BSc Thesis). August 1989.